韦友秀 陈牧 刘伟明 厉蕾 张官理 颜悦

韦友秀, 陈牧, 刘伟明, 厉蕾, 张官理, 颜悦. 电致变色技术研究进展和应用[J]. 航空材料学报, 2016, 36(3): 108-123. doi: 10.11868/j.issn.1005-5053.2016.3.012
引用本文: 韦友秀, 陈牧, 刘伟明, 厉蕾, 张官理, 颜悦. 电致变色技术研究进展和应用[J]. 航空材料学报, 2016, 36(3): 108-123. doi: 10.11868/j.issn.1005-5053.2016.3.012
Youxiu WEI, Mu CHEN, Weiming LIU, Lei LI, Guanli ZHANG, Yue YAN. Recent Process and Application of Electrochromism[J]. Journal of Aeronautical Materials, 2016, 36(3): 108-123. doi: 10.11868/j.issn.1005-5053.2016.3.012
Citation: Youxiu WEI, Mu CHEN, Weiming LIU, Lei LI, Guanli ZHANG, Yue YAN. Recent Process and Application of Electrochromism[J]. Journal of Aeronautical Materials, 2016, 36(3): 108-123. doi: 10.11868/j.issn.1005-5053.2016.3.012


doi: 10.11868/j.issn.1005-5053.2016.3.012


  • 中图分类号: O484

Recent Process and Application of Electrochromism

  • 摘要: 经过多年的研究和发展,电致变色技术已被应用于建筑窗、汽车防眩后视镜、飞机舷窗等领域。本文概述了电致变色器件的结构、工作原理、材料分类、以及特性要求,阐述了电致变色薄膜的制备方法和实现应用的技术要求,并总结分析了国内外发展状况和最新进展。将电致变色应用在能源领域达到节约能耗的效果,极具社会意义和商业价值,是其发展过程的里程碑。目前,探索时间成本和经济效益双赢的技术路线和工艺流程,拓展应用领域(与其他技术相结合)并开发出相关的实用性产品将为电致变色技术重要的发展趋势。具有工业前景的湿化学方法有降低成本,提高效率的优势,将成为实现该项技术普及化的研究热点,另外,电解质层材料的研发和制备也会成为研究发展中的核心技术。


  • 图  1  ECD的典型结构示意图

    Figure  1.  Typical structure illustration of ECD

    图  2  紫精材料氧化还原过程反应方程式

    Figure  2.  Redox formula of viologen

    图  3  聚合物电致变色材料在不同氧化状态下的电子能级示意图(a)和以杂环结构为例说明影响颜色和氧化电势的因素(b)[47]

    Figure  3.  Electronic energy bands diagram of polymer under different oxidized conditions (a) and factors tuning color and oxidation potential using simple heterocycles as an example (b)[47]

    图  4  不同颜色的共聚物的重复结构单元和吸收光谱图

    Figure  4.  Repeat unit structure,photographs in neutral and oxidized states and absorption spectra in fully neutralized states for the polymer films[51]

    图  5  Sage Glass电致变色窗在着褪色及中间状态下的透过率曲线(a)与太阳光辐射光谱图及人眼敏感波段(b)

    Figure  5.  Transmittance spectra of Sage Glass in clear,fully colored and two intermediate states (a) and solar irradiance spectrum during clear weather and at sea level and the sensitivity of human eyes (b)

    图  6  调节PB,Co-PBA,Ni-PBA的混合比例得到的不同的颜色

    Figure  6.  Hue circles produced by dichromic tuning of PB,Co-PBA,and Ni-PBA ink

    图  7  电致变色技术的应用举例

    Figure  7.  Examples of electrocromic application

    图  8  电致变色器件着色和褪色状态的图片(北京航空材料研究院)

    Figure  8.  Photographs of ECD in colored and bleached states (BIAM)

    图  9  ITO纳米晶粒得失电子的微观示意图和红外区域的透过率变化曲线[96]

    Figure  9.  Microscopic diagram of electron extracted and injected process in ITO nanocrystals (a,b) and associated optical changes (c,d)[96]

    图  10  柔性压力传感器和电致变色器件组合的器件示意图,以及器件的压力变色响应实物图[99]

    Figure  10.  Schematic layout of intergrated stretchable pressure sensor and electrochromic device and the color change related to the pressure[99]

    图  11  有机电致变色纤维器件结构图(左)和所使用的聚合物变色材料的分子结构(右)[100]

    Figure  11.  Schematic of the all-organic electrochromic spandex device (left) and structure of used polymer electrochromic material (right)[100]

    图  12  柔性电致变色纤维器件的颜色变化实物图 (a)喷覆银的导电纤维和PET-ITO为电极材料,PB为电致变色材料;(b)PEDOT纳米纤维为电极材料[101-102]

    Figure  12.  Color-changed photographs of flexible electrochromic fabric device (a) using silver-coated fabric and PEI-ITO as the electrode and Prussian blue as the electrochromic material; (b)PEDOT nanofibers as the elelctrode[101-102]

    图  13  光驱动电致变色器件工作的原理图,在开路(a)和短路(b)状态下,器件发生颜色变化

    Figure  13.  Working principle of photoelectrochromic device,changes of decive colors reversibly under open-circuit (a) and short-circuits (b) conditions

    表  1  可应用的电致变色窗的生产商和各项指标

    Table  1.   Data for commercially available electrochromic windows for building applications[92]

    Sage Electrochromics,Inc.108×1501.650.41-0.0150.48-0.09105
    Econtrol-Glass GmbH and Co.KG120×1201.10.05-0.150.36-0.1210-year guarantee
    Gesimat GmbH80×1200.52-0.060.78-0.0810-year guarantee
    U:the heat transfer factor;Tsol: solar transmittance;Tvis: visible transmittance; SF: solar factor
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  • 收稿日期:  2016-02-19
  • 修回日期:  2016-03-24
  • 刊出日期:  2016-06-01