增材制造超材料及其隐身功能调控的研究进展

张磊 卓林蓉 汤桂平 宋波 史玉升

张磊, 卓林蓉, 汤桂平, 宋波, 史玉升. 增材制造超材料及其隐身功能调控的研究进展[J]. 航空材料学报, 2018, 38(3): 10-19. doi: 10.11868/j.issn.1005-5053.2018.001009
引用本文: 张磊, 卓林蓉, 汤桂平, 宋波, 史玉升. 增材制造超材料及其隐身功能调控的研究进展[J]. 航空材料学报, 2018, 38(3): 10-19. doi: 10.11868/j.issn.1005-5053.2018.001009
Lei ZHANG, Linrong ZHUO, Guiping TANG, Bo SONG, Yusheng SHI. Additive Manufacture of Metamaterials: a Review[J]. Journal of Aeronautical Materials, 2018, 38(3): 10-19. doi: 10.11868/j.issn.1005-5053.2018.001009
Citation: Lei ZHANG, Linrong ZHUO, Guiping TANG, Bo SONG, Yusheng SHI. Additive Manufacture of Metamaterials: a Review[J]. Journal of Aeronautical Materials, 2018, 38(3): 10-19. doi: 10.11868/j.issn.1005-5053.2018.001009

增材制造超材料及其隐身功能调控的研究进展

doi: 10.11868/j.issn.1005-5053.2018.001009
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金面上项目(51775208)
详细信息
    通讯作者:

    宋波(1984—),男,博士,副教授,主要从事增材制造(3D打印)技术方面的研究,(E-mail)songbo42002@163.com

  • 中图分类号: TB535

Additive Manufacture of Metamaterials: a Review

  • 摘要: 超材料作为一种新型拓扑优化设计的结构材料,展现出特殊的物理性质,比如负泊松比、负折射率等,在波动控制和隐身方面有重要的潜在应用价值,因此受到国内外的广泛关注。增材制造技术,又称为3D打印技术,适合于制造复杂形状的结构,利用增材制造技术制造隐身超材料具有较高的几何自由度和尺寸精度,为超材料的广泛应用提供技术条件。本文基于超材料的基本概念,对隐身超材料结构设计、功能调控的研究进展进行详细介绍,进一步介绍增材制造隐身超材料的光固化法、熔融沉积法、激光选区烧结/熔化法等工艺方法,并讨论了增材制造超材料在制造过程中存在的阶梯效应、原材料黏附现象、热扩散现象、尺寸精度、粗糙度等问题。

     

  • 图  1  完美吸波体[8] (a)上层电谐振环;(b)底部金属短线;(c)整体单元结构

    Figure  1.  Perfect metamaterial absorber[8] (a)upper electric ring resonator (ERR);(b)substrate cutwire;(c)unitcell

    图  2  宽频吸波体[9] (a)示意图;(b)单元结构

    Figure  2.  Broadband absorber[9] (a)schematic diagram;(b)a unit cell

    图  3  东南大学制造的电磁黑洞结构[14] (a)全方位电磁吸波体模型;(b)超材料制备的全方位吸波装置

    Figure  3.  Electromagnetic(EM)omnidirectional absorber fabricated by Southeast University[14] (a)model of an electromagnetic omnidirectional absorber;(b)fabricated artificial omnidirectional absorbing devicebased on metamaterials

    图  4  西安交通大学制造的电磁黑洞结构[15] (a)电磁黑洞内核;(b)电磁黑洞外壳

    Figure  4.  EM wave concentrator fabricated by Xi’an Jiaotong University[15] (a)inner core of EM wave concentrator;(b)outer shell of EM wave concentrator

    图  5  首次实现的完美隐身罩[18]

    Figure  5.  First realization of perfect electromagnetic cloak[18]

    图  6  西安交通大学制造的隐身地毯[20]

    Figure  6.  Carpet cloak fabricated by Xi’an Jiaotong University[20]

    图  7  五模材料的单元结构及其特征参数[23] (a)Milton和Cherkaev提出的五模隐身超材料微结构单胞;(b)常见材料的体积模量、剪切模量的取值空间

    Figure  7.  Unit cell of pentamode material and its characteristic parameters[23] (a)unit cell of pentamode stealth metamaterial proposed by Milton and Cherkaev;(b)value space of bulk modulus and shear modulus of common materials

    图  8  激光直写技术制备的五模隐身超材料[32]

    Figure  8.  Pentamode stealth metamaterial fabricated by direct laser writing[32]

    图  9  五模隐身材料的试件及声场模拟结果[43-44] (a)五模隐身超材料三维模型;(b)制备的五模隐身材料试件;(c)实体块体的声场云图;(d)五模隐身材料的声场云图

    Figure  9.  Specimens made of pentamode stealth metamaterial and simulation results of sound field[43-44] (a)3D model of pentamode stealth metamaterial;(b)specimens of pentamode stealth metamaterial;(c)sound field distribution of solid block;(d)sound field distribution of pentamode stealth metamaterial

    图  10  机械磨削加工制备的微波段宽频吸波器[49]

    Figure  10.  Broadband microwave metamaterial absorber fabricated by mechanical milling method[49]

    图  11  激光选区烧结制备的吸波超材料[53]

    Figure  11.  Radar absorbing metamaterial fabricated by selectivelaser sintering[53]

    图  12  台阶效应示意图 (a)圆柱杆高倍SEM图像;(b)选择性激光熔化制造圆柱杆示意图[55]

    Figure  12.  Schematic of staircase-shaped profile (a)high magnification SEM image of cylindricalstrut;(b)schematic of cylindrical strut fabricated by selective laser melting

    图  13  激光选区熔化加工过程及热扩散示意图[57-59]

    Figure  13.  Schematic diagram of selective laser melting process and its thermal diffusion[57-59]

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  • 收稿日期:  2018-04-04
  • 修回日期:  2018-04-12
  • 网络出版日期:  2018-04-24
  • 刊出日期:  2018-06-01

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